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Java / J2ee interview questions and answers

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1)
What are design patterns?

Design patterns are recurring solution to recurring problems in software architecture. There are three design patterns available. They are Creational Patterns, Structural Patterns, Behavioral Patterns.

2)
Define Creational Patterns?

A rule or rule set tells the browser how to render an element, the rule set consists of the following :

  • Abstract Factory: Creates an instance of several families of classes
  • Builder : Separates object construction from its representation
  • Factory Method : Creates an instance of several derived classes
  • Prototype : A fully initialized instance to be copied or cloned
  • Singleton : A class in which only a single instance can exist

3)
Define Structural Patterns ?
  • Adapter: Match interfaces of different classes.
  • Bridge: Separates an object’s interface from its implementation.
  • Composite: A tree structure of simple and composite objects.
  • Decorator: Add responsibilities to objects dynamically
  • Façade: A single class that represents an entire subsystem.
  • Flyweight: A fine-grained instance used for efficient sharing.
  • Proxy: An object representing another object.
4)
Define Behavioral Patterns?
  • Mediator : Defines simplified communication between classes.
  • Memento: Capture and restore an object’s internal state.
  • Interpreter : A way to include language elements in a program.
  • Iterator : Sequentially access the elements of a collection.
  • Chain of Resp : A way of passing a request between a chain of objects.
  • Command : Encapsulate a command request as an object.
  • State : Alter an object’s behavior when its state changes
  • Strategy: Encapsulates an algorithm inside a class.
  • Observer : A way of notifying change toa number of classes.
  • Template Method : Defer the exact steps of an algorithm to a subclass.
  • Visitor : Defines a new operation to a class without change.
5)
How do you implement prototype pattern in JAVA?

Prototype means making a clone of an object. There are scenarios in project where you need to create a clone of the complete object. For such kind of scenarios prototype pattern comes to rescue.